Hi, This looks like the same issue which raised its head a little while ago on this forum. I can't find the thread right now but some digging around may uncover it.
It appears that your ESC calibration is ok but without props on, when you take control and raise the throttle, the flight controller is (unsuccessfully, obviously) trying to level the craft out and applying ever increasing revs to the motor it feels would correct the situation. I'm no expert here but I would put the props on, head out to a soft grassy area and try a take off to hover. If the theory above is right, there should be no issues, if not, the worst that should happen if you are quick on the throttle is a broken prop or a dirty quad.