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NEXT LEVEL P-40 Group Build

PoorManRC

Well-known member
#22
I made new tail feathers and I marginally like the new ones better. I say marginally because both have pros and cons. The tail section on the right is last nights version and the left is todays attempt:
View attachment 141761
In some ways the new ones have a cleaner look in the ironing, mostly with the elevator. And the taping is cleaner as well, no creases...
View attachment 141762
The leading edges are rounded and the tail edges are symmetrically tapered. I can't think of a way to eliminate the relief notch where the hinge cut meets the rounded edge at the tips, although I cut the notches instead of them ripping open on there own. The rudder/Vstab hinge is now double beveled instead of the single bevel...
View attachment 141763
… did the same with the elevator hinge as well. I also eliminated the tail skid brace cause she will be a belly lander, (plus I forgot to add reinforcement paint stir sticks to the wing lol). As you will notice there is no BBQ skewer in the elevator for torsion on the new one. The bevel on the elevator stiffened it up on its own. In the build video they call for the bevel to be on the H stab which is what i did to the first version. Looking at the pics I think the new one is cleaner, getting better at working the iron.

In conclusion... going with the new set
That looks awesome!!
One question that I've been wondering....
How does paint and Packing Tape go together?
I've tried to avoid Tape on the outside for just that reason.
 

BATTLEAXE

Well-known member
#23
That looks awesome!!
One question that I've been wondering....
How does paint and Packing Tape go together?
I've tried to avoid Tape on the outside for just that reason.
It will take a matte finish like the paper to a noticeable difference in more of a gloss base like tape, just lays different. That's what I found with primer anyway. But then again I have only used glossy paints. I wanna try matte paints, and airbrushing as well. Seems like it is a cleaner finish. Maybe it would lay on the tape better. Hard to say. I use tape because my planes tend to not survive very long anyway so if I put a lot of effort into the painting I will only want to look at it and not fly it lol
 

BATTLEAXE

Well-known member
#24
I have run into a conundrum while planning for the fuse mods and I would like to get some ideas from you great folks. It doesn't really have to do with the fuse itself, but more with the wing. After I assembled the 2 wing halves and before I glued them together I traced out the profile of the airfoil I made knowing that I would need it later to copy to the fuse plans to make the slots for the wing to pass through once put together. I didn't realize this problem till now but I am glad I caught it before it went past the point of no return.
20190907_082456.jpg
I sketched out some of the mods on the plans to visualize how this will all work out. In the center of the top plate is the cut out for the battery hatch. The bottom of the nose will be trimmed off to fit a rounded formed nose vent intake instead of a block like non functional double chin looking nose. And the tail section will be trimmed shorter in height to accommodate a rounded under belly for the tail section starting aft of the TE and forming to a 180 degree tight curve it the time it reaches the end of the tail. The portion directly under the length of the wing chord will remain squared off for strength and makes a good hand hold for launching. I was trying to think of a way to make this rounded as well but I couldn't figure out a way to make it strong enough for my flying at this point. If there are any suggestions there they will be greatly appreciated. But that's not the real issue I am looking at.

As you can see at the bottom of this pic is my wing profile tracing. Like I mentioned before in a previous post the wing profile has a bit of a fat belly at the bottom almost forming a semi symmetrical shape to the wing, which is not intended. The immediate issue I had with this when I folded it together was not only the lift aerodynamics but the strength along the span of the wing. Because the bottom has an unintended curve there might be a wrinkle along side the spar down the inside of the bottom panel. Back to the airfoil shape
20190907_082604.jpg
If I line up the bottom of the tracing to the original bottom of the folded wing profile the TE ends up high in comparison. I want to maintain the overall shape of the original airfoil but have a smooth top profile instead of being a creased and folded situation. Would this create less lift then the original style if I leave it as it is?
20190907_082645.jpg If I drop the TE to match the original TE it changes my wing incidence significantly, in turn changing the flight characteristics to more of a 3D profile or causing pitch issues in flight due to the change in angles of the wing in relation to the H stab surface. Looking at it as these as the only 2 options is kind of a head scratcher. So now I am looking at the wing directly.
20190907_083311.jpg
Looking down the wing from the LE from root to tip you may notice that the wing looks thicker at the end where the servo is placed as compared to the root. It is slight at first glance but it does change shape. This is the same for both sides evenly. When I was folding and gluing the wing halves I had to twist the bottom plate slightly to get the trailing edge of the bottom plate to line up with the length of the aileron hinge cut as this was riding right over the aileron causing the wing root where the halves mate to be out of square. It was an in the moment adjustment and there wasn't much thought in the consequences post gluing lol.

So in conclusion... Do I go with the wing I have and which incidence would work best? or...
Do I make a new wing and how do I make changes to fix the wing to get the desired results, sticking to the original wing profile while
keeping the smooth top panel?

I know there have been many others who have done a smoothed out wing, this being my first, and it seems to work out for them. Is there any tips or tricks I am missing or other changes to the wing that I have overlooked? Any comment or suggestions will be highly appreciated. Thank you for reading.
 

PoorManRC

Well-known member
#25
I don't know enough about Airfoil Design to do anything but mislead! 😖 I'm not the guy who's just going to throw idiotic guesses at you....

That said, your "Accident" with the Wing had given it a more pseudo symmetrical Profile....
If you enjoy flying inverted a lot, you've made a good Wing for it!!!
Just make SURE that the LE to TE Incidence isn't too far in either direction. 1 or 2 Degrees Positive will help with symmetrical Wings, with adding some stability.

I honestly don't think you've done anything really bad for Aerodynamics!! 😉
Unfortunately though, you've reached the end of my knowledge on that subject. 😜😂

Hope that helped at ALL
 

Hai-Lee

Old and Bold RC PILOT
#26
I have run into a conundrum while planning for the fuse mods and I would like to get some ideas from you great folks. It doesn't really have to do with the fuse itself, but more with the wing. After I assembled the 2 wing halves and before I glued them together I traced out the profile of the airfoil I made knowing that I would need it later to copy to the fuse plans to make the slots for the wing to pass through once put together. I didn't realize this problem till now but I am glad I caught it before it went past the point of no return.
View attachment 141809
I sketched out some of the mods on the plans to visualize how this will all work out. In the center of the top plate is the cut out for the battery hatch. The bottom of the nose will be trimmed off to fit a rounded formed nose vent intake instead of a block like non functional double chin looking nose. And the tail section will be trimmed shorter in height to accommodate a rounded under belly for the tail section starting aft of the TE and forming to a 180 degree tight curve it the time it reaches the end of the tail. The portion directly under the length of the wing chord will remain squared off for strength and makes a good hand hold for launching. I was trying to think of a way to make this rounded as well but I couldn't figure out a way to make it strong enough for my flying at this point. If there are any suggestions there they will be greatly appreciated. But that's not the real issue I am looking at.

As you can see at the bottom of this pic is my wing profile tracing. Like I mentioned before in a previous post the wing profile has a bit of a fat belly at the bottom almost forming a semi symmetrical shape to the wing, which is not intended. The immediate issue I had with this when I folded it together was not only the lift aerodynamics but the strength along the span of the wing. Because the bottom has an unintended curve there might be a wrinkle along side the spar down the inside of the bottom panel. Back to the airfoil shape
View attachment 141810
If I line up the bottom of the tracing to the original bottom of the folded wing profile the TE ends up high in comparison. I want to maintain the overall shape of the original airfoil but have a smooth top profile instead of being a creased and folded situation. Would this create less lift then the original style if I leave it as it is?
View attachment 141811 If I drop the TE to match the original TE it changes my wing incidence significantly, in turn changing the flight characteristics to more of a 3D profile or causing pitch issues in flight due to the change in angles of the wing in relation to the H stab surface. Looking at it as these as the only 2 options is kind of a head scratcher. So now I am looking at the wing directly.
View attachment 141812
Looking down the wing from the LE from root to tip you may notice that the wing looks thicker at the end where the servo is placed as compared to the root. It is slight at first glance but it does change shape. This is the same for both sides evenly. When I was folding and gluing the wing halves I had to twist the bottom plate slightly to get the trailing edge of the bottom plate to line up with the length of the aileron hinge cut as this was riding right over the aileron causing the wing root where the halves mate to be out of square. It was an in the moment adjustment and there wasn't much thought in the consequences post gluing lol.

So in conclusion... Do I go with the wing I have and which incidence would work best? or...
Do I make a new wing and how do I make changes to fix the wing to get the desired results, sticking to the original wing profile while
keeping the smooth top panel?

I know there have been many others who have done a smoothed out wing, this being my first, and it seems to work out for them. Is there any tips or tricks I am missing or other changes to the wing that I have overlooked? Any comment or suggestions will be highly appreciated. Thank you for reading.
OK, Here goes and forgive me if I miss something!
For the wing change in profile yes you will have less lift than the original. With the bulge in the bottom of the wing the loss will be greater than just a decrease in wing thickness. However due to the size and weight of the model and the low Reynolds numbers involved the main difference will just be a marginally higher take off and landing speed, for the same weight that is.

Cutting the wing profile into the fuselage would be best done using the actual curve of the wing at the point where it contacts the fuselage, but before getting the knife out you need to establish the Incidence of the original design, (what constitutes zero incidence), and the incidence angle, (zero incidence line), of the new wing profile.

When changing wing profiles or even when designing a new design I determine what wing angle is required in the design, then determine what the weight is likely to be, (heavy, moderate or light build), and if necessary adjust the incidence line accordingly on the fuselage.

With the line determined on the wing and fuselage I then position the wing so that its centre line runs parallel to the marked, required, line on the fuselage and transfer the required cutout curve to the fuselage.

Next I cut the line in the fuselage but do so that I still have about half a millimetre of too much material all round the cut and use sandpaper to do a fine fit and any minute adjustments required. Done properly it provides a full contact wing saddle which distributed the wing forces across the entire saddle area and can be glued if required.

The incidence question is best answered with either keep the wing incidence as close as is possible to the original at least initially! A slight positive angle is shown on the original design and so that would be a good starting point! If you increase the incidence angle do so marginally and observe the inflight performance especially the fuselage attitude in level flight at full power! I do not expect that you will suffer too much of a change in performance in reality as the numbers are so small and the plane should be quite light!

Whilst I know that covering the wing tips for a smoother profile would make it look good I would leave the covers off until after you have completed the first few flights and then you can fit the covers and observe any performance differences. I suspect that when you cover the wing tip under area the stall speed will increase and it could possibly become a rather sudden and violent loss of lift at stall, (similar to the real thing).

One last thing! The wing servos would be best cut into the wing underside rather than have them cause the wing underside skin to bulge downwards near the wing tips. The hole for the servos could be covered with tape or card after the servos are fitted!

If it think of anything else I will post it later!

Just remember it is FB and cheap! So go and try your mods your way and if they work GREAT and if not then ask a few questions and return to the bench and MAKE them work! You can do it!

Have fun!
 

BATTLEAXE

Well-known member
#27
OK, Here goes and forgive me if I miss something!
For the wing change in profile yes you will have less lift than the original. With the bulge in the bottom of the wing the loss will be greater than just a decrease in wing thickness. However due to the size and weight of the model and the low Reynolds numbers involved the main difference will just be a marginally higher take off and landing speed, for the same weight that is.

Cutting the wing profile into the fuselage would be best done using the actual curve of the wing at the point where it contacts the fuselage, but before getting the knife out you need to establish the Incidence of the original design, (what constitutes zero incidence), and the incidence angle, (zero incidence line), of the new wing profile.

When changing wing profiles or even when designing a new design I determine what wing angle is required in the design, then determine what the weight is likely to be, (heavy, moderate or light build), and if necessary adjust the incidence line accordingly on the fuselage.

With the line determined on the wing and fuselage I then position the wing so that its centre line runs parallel to the marked, required, line on the fuselage and transfer the required cutout curve to the fuselage.

Next I cut the line in the fuselage but do so that I still have about half a millimetre of too much material all round the cut and use sandpaper to do a fine fit and any minute adjustments required. Done properly it provides a full contact wing saddle which distributed the wing forces across the entire saddle area and can be glued if required.

The incidence question is best answered with either keep the wing incidence as close as is possible to the original at least initially! A slight positive angle is shown on the original design and so that would be a good starting point! If you increase the incidence angle do so marginally and observe the inflight performance especially the fuselage attitude in level flight at full power! I do not expect that you will suffer too much of a change in performance in reality as the numbers are so small and the plane should be quite light!

Whilst I know that covering the wing tips for a smoother profile would make it look good I would leave the covers off until after you have completed the first few flights and then you can fit the covers and observe any performance differences. I suspect that when you cover the wing tip under area the stall speed will increase and it could possibly become a rather sudden and violent loss of lift at stall, (similar to the real thing).

One last thing! The wing servos would be best cut into the wing underside rather than have them cause the wing underside skin to bulge downwards near the wing tips. The hole for the servos could be covered with tape or card after the servos are fitted!

If it think of anything else I will post it later!

Just remember it is FB and cheap! So go and try your mods your way and if they work GREAT and if not then ask a few questions and return to the bench and MAKE them work! You can do it!

Have fun!
Thx I really appreciate it. And you are right. It is Just FB and if I have make a whole second plane I will. In this case right now I might just build a new wing with some minor adjustments while still retaining to old one for comparison. On the new wing i might do the usual bevel cut instead of the iron bevel, and i might lengthen the top panel by 1-2 cm or so at the root tapered to the tip to allow for more material to create a more pronounced curve on top to try to regain the original profile of the folded wing. as far as the servos go they fit in beside the end of the spar flush in height to the top of the spar but i think the tips of the mounting wings on the servos are putting pressure on the underside of the top surface creating said bulge in their respective locations. You just made my decision of what to do so much easier and I am confident in what i need to do now, thank you.
 

Hai-Lee

Old and Bold RC PILOT
#28
Thx I really appreciate it. And you are right. It is Just FB and if I have make a whole second plane I will. In this case right now I might just build a new wing with some minor adjustments while still retaining to old one for comparison. On the new wing i might do the usual bevel cut instead of the iron bevel, and i might lengthen the top panel by 1-2 cm or so at the root tapered to the tip to allow for more material to create a more pronounced curve on top to try to regain the original profile of the folded wing. as far as the servos go they fit in beside the end of the spar flush in height to the top of the spar but i think the tips of the mounting wings on the servos are putting pressure on the underside of the top surface creating said bulge in their respective locations. You just made my decision of what to do so much easier and I am confident in what i need to do now, thank you.
If you build a standard fold wing with an elongated top panel the wing will not only have greater wing area and lift BUT it will also have increased wing incidence if fitted into the original wing cutout in the fuselage. Effectively you will be lowering the wing TE!

Just remember that the wing lift is in the vast majority generated by the wing upper surface and that the lower surface, (if flat) only generates surface drag, (but not quite true but a good approximation)! If the wing under surface is also curved, (symmetrical or semi-symmetrical), the airflow is also increased in speed going under the wing and the total lift, (positive added to negative), will be less for the same incidence angle BUT the drag of the profile will generally be decreased!

Have fun!
 

BATTLEAXE

Well-known member
#29
If you build a standard fold wing with an elongated top panel the wing will not only have greater wing area and lift BUT it will also have increased wing incidence if fitted into the original wing cutout in the fuselage. Effectively you will be lowering the wing TE!

Just remember that the wing lift is in the vast majority generated by the wing upper surface and that the lower surface, (if flat) only generates surface drag, (but not quite true but a good approximation)! If the wing under surface is also curved, (symmetrical or semi-symmetrical), the airflow is also increased in speed going under the wing and the total lift, (positive added to negative), will be less for the same incidence angle BUT the drag of the profile will generally be decreased!

Have fun!
Very true, the less difference in air speed over and under the wing comparatively is what I was worried about. I folded and glued this wing with the top facing down against the table so i could line up the TE of the bottom surface with the aileron hinge lines. Due to the C folded TE of the bottom panel and the distance from the TE of the top surface the angle that tapers back and down from the top should have dropped level with the straight bottom panel as per the plans on the creased and folded original design. As it turned out with the smooth/creaseless top panel this did not line up so i put pressure down on the raised LE of the wing, (upside down of coarse) to force the TE of the bottom panel to line up, which in turn created the center hump on the bottom surface, deforming the wing profile. I'm at the theory that if I add a little to the length of the chord on just the top surface that the curve will be more gracefully rounded over giving a little more height to the front around the CG point and effectively tapering down to the TE at a slightly greater angle, thus dropping the TE closer to even with the plane of the bottom surface. Wow that's a lot to write and I am sure its a lot to wrap your head around lol.

Either way we explain it I think we are on the same page, I am going to try it and see what happens. The paper that i peeled of the inside of the wing to get the FB to curve was trimmed from between the LE and the lines indicating the second crease A couple cm's behind the spar. would it be advantageous to move the aft trim line ahead to just behind the spar?

And i maintained the under camber on the wing tips as well, I didn't fill them in. I only replaced the paper I peeled away for forming with spray adhesive and 25 lb printing paper, not poster board. I really like the under camber so that will be retained.

Thanks again
 

Sero

Well-known member
#30
Looks like Hai-Lee has you covered. Only thing I can add is that with the FT wings the rear spar is used also to raise the trailing edge so it doesn't drop below the wing. Basically if you put the wing flat on a table the trailing edge should just be touching the table. Since you reduced the upper surface curve it raised the trailing edge. My thoughts are that you will have less lift, but also more drag since that is a big step ahead of the TE. It could also make your ailerons less effect when they are down as they will be in dirty turbulent air.

As for the servos definitely clearance out the foam so the wing doesn't bulge. You can trace out the shape of the servo on the FB and cut and remove the paper only and remove as much foam as you need. That can be done on both sides of the servo if need be.

Here is a timed video as to what I'm speaking of:
 

kilroy07

Well-known member
#34
Very true, the less difference in air speed over and under the wing comparatively is what I was worried about. I folded and glued this wing with the top facing down against the table so i could line up the TE of the bottom surface with the aileron hinge lines. Due to the C folded TE of the bottom panel and the distance from the TE of the top surface the angle that tapers back and down from the top should have dropped level with the straight bottom panel as per the plans on the creased and folded original design. As it turned out with the smooth/creaseless top panel this did not line up so i put pressure down on the raised LE of the wing, (upside down of coarse) to force the TE of the bottom panel to line up, which in turn created the center hump on the bottom surface, deforming the wing profile. I'm at the theory that if I add a little to the length of the chord on just the top surface that the curve will be more gracefully rounded over giving a little more height to the front around the CG point and effectively tapering down to the TE at a slightly greater angle, thus dropping the TE closer to even with the plane of the bottom surface. Wow that's a lot to write and I am sure its a lot to wrap your head around lol.

Either way we explain it I think we are on the same page, I am going to try it and see what happens. The paper that i peeled of the inside of the wing to get the FB to curve was trimmed from between the LE and the lines indicating the second crease A couple cm's behind the spar. would it be advantageous to move the aft trim line ahead to just behind the spar?

And i maintained the under camber on the wing tips as well, I didn't fill them in. I only replaced the paper I peeled away for forming with spray adhesive and 25 lb printing paper, not poster board. I really like the under camber so that will be retained.

Thanks again
I agree adding some length to the top cord will help, I also suggest building with the bottom flat on the table.
It’s my opinion the ft build style actually adds some tension making the wings more rigid.
 

BATTLEAXE

Well-known member
#35
I have been keen to fill in the stepped section of the underside of the wing at the TE - that FT style step messes with my Fengshui - if it was missing you would more easily keep the wing profile and the bottom flat. :D
I totally agree. Your DLG's have the bottom plate front to back, and you have a spar inside as well. @Sero also is building his two Speed racers with a filled in bottom, but no wing tip under camber. How do I get the best of both worlds... This has me thinking :unsure:... Could I extend the bottom all the way out to the back of the TE between the wing root to the inside of the aileron and notch it back to the step just in front of the aileron and still keep the under camber?

This will take some planning but it's looking like we might be onto something. So glad I didn't start a new wing yesterday. I would be building a third set now lol
I agree adding some length to the top cord will help, I also suggest building with the bottom flat on the table.
It’s my opinion the ft build style actually adds some tension making the wings more rigid.
The only reason i didn't set the wing with the bottom flat on the table was because i couldn't see where it all was goin to line up if i did. In test fitting before the glue I noticed the issue and tried to fix the problem by just shifting and forcing things into place. Normally i would have, as per usual. With the creased wings their fit is more direct and precise as to where it all ends up, a curve smooth profile I find has more play, but has the potential to either help or hinder you

Conclusion I will have to figure this out on the bench, thanks for the inspiration. It's a rainy misty soggy day out so there won't be any flying which sucks. I do have a garage to organize so that will take up some time today but it will also give me some pondering time as well, good brain box drafting should happen then, and maybe a plan will formulate. Thx again
 

BATTLEAXE

Well-known member
#36
Here are mine built at the beginning of the flying season. I love the way they fly, similar to the spitfire. I usually don't go to extremes anymore with my foam board builds, they just get beat up to fast.
I love the color scheme on those P-40's, and very clean crisp builds as well. You said they fly close in characteristics to the Spit, is there any inherent differences that stand out to you?
 

kilroy07

Well-known member
#37
Here are mine built at the beginning of the flying season. I love the way they fly, similar to the spitfire. I usually don't go to extremes anymore with my foam board builds, they just get beat up to fast.
The British one is pretty sweet.

Have you tried ironing the edges?
I find it make things like the wing tips much more durable.
 

Sero

Well-known member
#38
I totally agree. Your DLG's have the bottom plate front to back, and you have a spar inside as well. @Sero also is building his two Speed racers with a filled in bottom, but no wing tip under camber. How do I get the best of both worlds... This has me thinking :unsure:... Could I extend the bottom all the way out to the back of the TE between the wing root to the inside of the aileron and notch it back to the step just in front of the aileron and still keep the under camber?

This will take some planning but it's looking like we might be onto something. So glad I didn't start a new wing yesterday. I would be building a third set now lol

The only reason i didn't set the wing with the bottom flat on the table was because i couldn't see where it all was goin to line up if i did. In test fitting before the glue I noticed the issue and tried to fix the problem by just shifting and forcing things into place. Normally i would have, as per usual. With the creased wings their fit is more direct and precise as to where it all ends up, a curve smooth profile I find has more play, but has the potential to either help or hinder you

Conclusion I will have to figure this out on the bench, thanks for the inspiration. It's a rainy misty soggy day out so there won't be any flying which sucks. I do have a garage to organize so that will take up some time today but it will also give me some pondering time as well, good brain box drafting should happen then, and maybe a plan will formulate. Thx again
You can easily build the speed wing with the under cambered wing tips. Just extend the bottom wing surface the distance of the ailerons plus half and inch. When you do a test fold over of the wing you can see where the 2 trailing edges meet and trim the excess. Bevel the 2 trailing edges (excluding the top cambered tips) as you do for a speed wing build. You can refer to Nerdnic video posted above and watch him build the speed wing to get ideas.

Hope that all makes sense.

I was going to do this for my FT Goblin but opted to keep that part simple as I did different mods.
 

PoorManRC

Well-known member
#39
Very true, the less difference in air speed over and under the wing comparatively is what I was worried about. I folded and glued this wing with the top facing down against the table so i could line up the TE of the bottom surface with the aileron hinge lines. Due to the C folded TE of the bottom panel and the distance from the TE of the top surface the angle that tapers back and down from the top should have dropped level with the straight bottom panel as per the plans on the creased and folded original design. As it turned out with the smooth/creaseless top panel this did not line up so i put pressure down on the raised LE of the wing, (upside down of coarse) to force the TE of the bottom panel to line up, which in turn created the center hump on the bottom surface, deforming the wing profile. I'm at the theory that if I add a little to the length of the chord on just the top surface that the curve will be more gracefully rounded over giving a little more height to the front around the CG point and effectively tapering down to the TE at a slightly greater angle, thus dropping the TE closer to even with the plane of the bottom surface. Wow that's a lot to write and I am sure its a lot to wrap your head around lol.

Either way we explain it I think we are on the same page, I am going to try it and see what happens. The paper that i peeled of the inside of the wing to get the FB to curve was trimmed from between the LE and the lines indicating the second crease A couple cm's behind the spar. would it be advantageous to move the aft trim line ahead to just behind the spar?

And i maintained the under camber on the wing tips as well, I didn't fill them in. I only replaced the paper I peeled away for forming with spray adhesive and 25 lb printing paper, not poster board. I really like the under camber so that will be retained.

Thanks again
I had a feeling that Hai-Lee would step in out of the vapor, with the Technical expertise and Answers, that I just wasn't capable of on this subject!! 😜😎 He's a wealth of information and a true expert in RC Flight!! 👍👍

@Sero That Video just gave ME a mind boggling amount of ideas!!! 😲😎
First, I forgot that Nerdnic's NNP-39 is FULL size, not Mini!!

Second, I'm adopting HIS method of double FB TEs and Tail Feathers!! SO much cleaner and more Scale! 👍👍
I'll still figure out a way to still incorporate Undercambered Wings, with that method....
..... Like @bracesport - that deep step in the lower Wing really messes with my Fengshui!!! 😜 That, and it actually can cause some Vortex Effects under the Ailerons. That's not where I'd want swirling, turbulent Air!!

YES, there's Hundreds of Thousands of FT Aircraft flying with that step....
It just messes with my limited knowledge of Aircraft Wing Aerodynamics.

And Third, did hear him correctly?? PURCHASE and QUICK BUILD KITS for his P-39???? 😮😁😎🍺🍺!!!!
OMFG!! I'm so IN on that. 😊

I'll be applying several of his appearance, performance and strengthening ideas in my P-40, and even my Storch!! 😎👋👋👋👋