Their is no way for us to tell if your motor & ESC can operate on 3S. As others have said check the specs of your equipment. You will definitely need a smaller prop, something 1-2 inches smaller than you currently use. Consult the recommendations for your motor or one of similar size to pick a prop for 3S.
I have a 3 cell battery with a c pack radial motor and 20 amp esc running a 10*45 prop and it works great.
I think if you have a decent motor and use a 10*45 prop it should work but if the motor or esc get quite hot then just downsize your prop.