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Basic Fixed Wing Setup

Hai-Lee

Old and Bold RC PILOT
#1
Setting up your first fixed wing aircraft can seem quite simple but there are a few misunderstandings around transmitter setup which can cause difficulty for some and so this is just a few simple pointers to clarify things a little and allow you to setup your plane and get it to fly reasonably at first attempt. Of course after the first flight you may need to adjust things a little to "Tweak" its performance.

Firstly I will state that ideally the point at which the pushrod, (or equivalent), connects to the control horn should be perpendicular to the control surface hinge line. This is important for getting balanced control response, especially with rudder and elevator. There can be times where a non-balanced response may be required but that can be normally achieved in "Post" setup changes to the transmitter settings.

Initial Transmitter Settings

1.The trims should be centred.
2.The sub-trims should also be checked to ensure that they are centred.
3. on the dual rate settings the "High" rate should be set to 100%
4. The end points should be set for +100% & -100%

Setting up the Servos
1. With the servos plugged into the Rx turn on the Transmitter and then turn on the Rx. This should centre the servos!
2. Fit the servo into its final position and secure such that it cannot move in its mounted position.
3. Now fit the output arm of the servo such that it is in parallel with the control horn. As servos will not align perfectly with the required angle initially you should endeavor to get the arm as close as it physically possible to the required angle.
Getting the angle exact: With the angle as close as you can get mechanically you can tweak the angle by using the sub-trim thereby keeping your trim range centred for your first flight. In the case of dual controls like ailerons/Flaps/Elevons and Flaperons
you can use the sub-trim to get IDENTICAL angles on the servo arms so you get balanced control surface deflections
which can be vital for stable and predictable operation of the plane.

4. Fit and tighten the securing screw to the top on the servo.
5. Fit the pushrod onto the servo in the hole closest to the securing screw. and then connect the other end of the pushrod into the hole in the control horn furthermost from the hinge line. Check the control throw or deflection. If insufficient deflection then shift the servo end of the pushrod outwards to a hole that is further away from the securing screw and re-check. Repeat until the required deflection is achieved.
6. Repeat step 5 for every control surface.
7. Centre each and every control surface and either adjust the length of the pushrod or tighten the linkage stopper to lock the control surface in its centred position with the servo in its centred position.

Setting up the Transmitter
1. Sub Trim is set during the initial setup to get the servos either properly and squarely centred, or to give identical servo arm angles for dual control surfaces.
2. Dual rate. With the High rate setup to give the recommended control surface deflection the rate switch is then moved to the low rate position and the low rate setting recommended setting is programmed in. Where no recommended low rate is given an setting of 80% is recommended as a starting point. Feel free to adjust to suit your own experience after the first flight.
3. Expo. This setting can vary significantly between brand of transmitters/ For an experienced pilot the setting recommended for the first flight is 30% whereas a beginner should consider a setting as high as 50%. Too much Expo can make the plane somewhat unresponsive at all but large control stick deflections. The significant differences in Transmitter Expo settings is that on some systems the settings you require will be "Positive" and on some others it will be "Negative" for the same effect. The effect you require is to flatten the response curve around the transmitter stick's centre position. For the same movement angle of the Tx stick the centre area should move the control surface less.
4. End Points. The setting of end points can provide a few special benefit for those who use them. When using 2 channels for the ailerons, rather than adding Differential mechanically you can provide a good facsimile by reducing the down deflection on each of the aileron channels. In addition where you find you have insufficient rudder in a single direction you can increase the overall rudder deflection mechanically and then cut the response in a single direction, (the working direction), by altering end point. Where your flap setup is driving the servos to their limits and causing the flap servos to stall and "Buzz" continuously you can reduce the range of the flap servo travel by adjusting their end points.
5. Mixes. I will not discuss the need for, or how to implement mixing as that can be an involved subject and a long post that may be transmitter specific.
6. Mix Ratios. When you are using a mix and find that you need to adjust the input rations of the channels, (the FT Viggen is a classic where the elevator input needs to be greater than the aileron input), you can adjust the amount of each channel into the mix. (For a Viggen the ratio would be approximately 60% elevator and 40% aileron).

I hope that answers a few questions and perhaps raise a few others!

Have fun!
 

mayan

Well-known member
#3
Great thread @Hai-Lee I think that this is a good starting point for those of us that don't understand this all yet. I know I need to understand all this better!
 

Hai-Lee

Old and Bold RC PILOT
#4
Rather than start a new thread I will just add to this thread.

I am raising a document in relation to ESCs for new club members and newbies in general.

I invite comments as to the accuracy of the document or any other things that should be included, but just remember I am trying to dumb it down a LOT.

Here is the initial draft text.

Brushless ESCs
A layman’s introduction to safe handling.

Most electric motor driven models, including RC aircraft, now use an Electronic Speed Controller to supply and control the power supplied to the brushless electric motor. With the motor power available and the potential for damage or injury in handling such power, ESCs are designed to have an integral level of safety features. Many do not know or understand the safety features and this lead to the use of handling procedures that can introduce the possibility of damage or harm.

All electronics used in RC aircraft are continually evolving and becoming safer and more user friendly. Safety features are included in many of the individual items that go to make up a radio control system and the main two, (in the area of safety developments are the ESC and the Receiver).

A modern ESC is a microprocessor controlled device which not only generates the appropriate power supply waveforms to the motor but also allows for the programming of features as well as implementing or providing a number of safe operating functions. If you understand the growth of safety with ESCs then you are able to use the features to enhance your personal safety as well as preventing damage to your equipment.

When using the field programming feature the ESC does communicate a series of beeps through the connected motor by using the motor drive circuitry and the motor itself as a speaker. When attempting to program an ESC a motor should be connected. Attempting to program an ESC, without a connected motor, could cause the ESC to have features programmed in unintentionally.

Some of the features that you should be aware of, or familiar with, are;

  • Battery voltage measurement. This has 2 functions, firstly it signals audibly, using the motor as a speaker, as to the applied voltage or the battery cell count. Secondly it provides a low voltage detection and battery protection function by disconnecting the motor drive or reducing the power supplied to the motor when the battery voltage goes below the programmed safety voltage of the battery based upon the initial battery voltage measurement.
  • Valid throttle input. This function is an alarm that is normally only an advisory. When older analogue receivers are used this is an important safety warning as earlier receivers did not have a mute function on the receiver channel outputs and so noise, interference, or a rogue but on channel radio transmission, could cause false valid throttle inputs to the ESC occasionally. By warning of a lack of valid throttle input, when using an older analogue radio system, the fault should be remedied before a dangerous incident can occur. Where the ESC is not connected to a receiver, connected incorrectly, or a receiver is not powered up this alarm is considered as advisory only. When not receiving a valid throttle input signal the motor drive function is disabled.
  • Throttle calibration. As individual radio systems are not calibrated to the exact PWM channel specifications, a small variation is anticipated in what is the actual minimum and maximum throttle channel pulse widths. A calibration function is provided to set the ESC to respond to the full pulse wide input range used in the radio system into which the ESC has been installed. A poorly set throttle calibration can be very annoying but not a serious safety issue.
  • Program Mode. When an ESC is powered up and it receives a valid throttle input signal but the signal is not for minimum throttle then the ESC will not enable the motor drive circuitry but rather it will enter its programming mode. The program mode settings and requirements are not being discussed in this note. The response of the ESC to the throttle not being set to minimum is actually a safety feature in that the ESC will NEVER enable the motor drive circuitry until it has initially received a minimum throttle input. Accidently having a transmitter throttle setting at more than minimum when the battery is initially connected to the ESC CANNOT ever cause an accidental motor start.
  • Low voltage detection. The ESC is programmed to detect battery voltage and has a setting for the minimum battery voltage it will use before disconnecting the motor drive circuitry. The trigger point of this feature is dependent upon the initial battery voltage or cell count measurement when the battery was first connected to the ESC and the setting of the low voltage protection point that is set in the programming. This feature is to protect your model from a loss of control due to a flat battery and as an indication of the battery charge state. The settings, apart from the volts/cell of the cut-out point, can select the required action once the low voltage is detected. Actions available are either to disable the motor drive or to reduce the maximum power available to the motor.
  • Over temperature protection. As the motor drive circuitry can supply very large currents and therefore considerable electrical power the manufacturers include a temperature monitoring function for the motor drive stages. This monitoring does not monitor current draw. The BEC part of the ESC has its own separate over-temperature protection circuitry in the components used. The BEC over temperature response is to remove voltage from the receiver by load shedding or output voltage reduction. A BEC that overheats will cause a definite Loss of Control. In order to prevent the motor drive circuitry from becoming so hot that the radiant heat causes the BEC to become over heated a temperature monitor is included. The ESC responds to overheating of the motor drive circuitry is to reduce the power to the motor drive outputs effectively just reducing the throttle setting or in the extreme, (or as per program settings), the removal of motor drive completely.
  • Motor start torque. This feature comes as a surprise to many. Where a motor drive command is applied by the ESC the initial torque of the motors is quite low and the current quite high. The ESCs look for the back EMF generated by the motor rotation to determine rotational speed. (This is a crude and inaccurate measurement). If a motor is unable to rotate freely the motor will tend to be either very slow in rotation or even stalled. Rather than burn out the motor drive circuitry with huge currents the ESC will cycle through a number of attempts to start the motor. After a number of attempts to get the motor to rotate, the ESC will determine that the motor has a fault and remove the drive to the motor. It will remain in this condition until the throttle setting is returned to minimum whereupon the motor drive circuitry will be re-enabled.
There are a small number of Brushless ESCs available or still in use that have an on/off switch wired to them. These ESCs can be considered as older or legacy designs and the function of the switch is to disable the BEC output voltage regulator as well as to cause the microprocessor to hold the motor drive circuitry in an OFF state. Whilst there is a minor power saving in the OFF position the main reason for its inclusion is that the older analogue receivers could provide random throttle inputs due to noise and interference. By removing the BEC output the receiver is turned off and so no false throttle signals can be generated.

A summary of safe ESC operation.

A modern brushless ESC cannot cause a motor start unless there is a valid throttle input signal AND that the throttle signal had initially been set at minimum throttle before being advanced to a non-minimum throttle setting. The following conditions are safe with a modern ESC by design.

  • The ESC connected to the motor and battery but not the receiver. (No valid throttle input signal).
  • The model is using a modern Spread Spectrum receiver and the battery is connected to the ESC when the transmitter is not switched on. (No valid throttle input signal).
  • The model is using a modern Spread Spectrum receiver and the battery is connected to the ESC when the transmitter is turned off. (Loss of valid throttle input signal, subject to the receiver’s Fail-safe settings).
  • Low voltage cut-out will protect the plane from crashing due to a loss of control as long as you land immediately the protection measure is enacted.
  • Over temperature protection to protect your model from a loss of control due to the potential loss of the receiver voltage loss which could occur due to BEC self-protection. You need to revise your installation or setup.
Specific dangerous situations

  • Handling a model that is powered up and the transmitter signal, a valid throttle setting, is present as this means that the ESC remains armed and the motor drive circuitry remains active.
  • The use of an analogue radio system with its interference and rogue transmitter susceptibilities. A specific type of ESC is best suited to such installations and these are recognised by their included on/off switch.
  • The use of ANY radio system that is susceptible to interference unless the ESC has its own on/off switch.
  • Improperly set Fail-Safe settings.
  • The use of a radio system where the manufacturer has reversed the minimum and maximum PWM pulse widths in their system. This is a sad feature of our hobby but some manufacturers insist on sticking to their own proprietary radio, and PWM specifications. This can be a serious issue for the inexperienced.
  • Inadvertently reversing the throttle channel during a model setup where the transmitter and the model are both powered up. When reversed the channel can go from what the ESC sees as a minimum throttle to Maximum throttle. Kill switch function, and holding the throttle off manually are all reversed and so are of zero value in the case of such an occurrence.
WARNING

Know your radio, its features, and its failings.

Do not rely on transmitter functions to protect you. A transmitter can fail, have a flat battery, be bumped or be dropped. Relying on a safety feature than can be so easily removed is a recipe for disaster. Placing your transmitter down on the ground can make is susceptible to moisture ingress and thereby possibly a serious fault or general failure.

Safety features that can control the ESC operation must be set correctly, especially the Fail-Safe settings or at least be aware of the default fail-safe programming of your system and modify your setup handling procedures accordingly.

When doing any work on your model, ensure that the model is tethered, (tied down or otherwise secured against unexpected movement), or remove the propeller. In cases where the propeller is unable to be removed and that the model has no restraint available you can disconnect one of the motor to ESC connections thereby removing motor drive but allowing the ESC signalling to still function. If the ESC is inaccessible and the propeller cannot be removed you can secure the propeller itself. The securing of the propeller against movement is the solution of last resort.

Do not overload the BEC output on the ESC or the BEC will overheat or detect an over current condition and shut down. This shutting down will definitely cause a loss of the receiver function and of any control. Fail-safe settings will not be activated as the Receiver has been shutdown. Normally a crash will ensue.

Do not fit a higher voltage battery than the ESC is rated for. The higher voltage itself can cause the ESC to fail in itself. Where the ESC does not fail the power available to the motor can be so high that the current levels exceed the motor drive circuitry’s abilities and a output failure can occur, (normally the output goes short circuit), and a fire can develop as well as the burning out of the motor itself. The ESC output can actually overheat very rapidly, (which causes the BEC to overheat and shutdown), before the output fails and the worse case result can be an out of control model in flames seeking an impact point or target.

Ensure that your ESC has good ventilation in all installations.

When flying a number of different models attempt to make the setups the same. This avoids handling errors due to confusion that could possibly lead to personal injury or model damage.

When you have finished your model’s setup test it in every manner that you can think of prior to removing the tether. If you have made a mistake in the setup it is better to find out in the workshop rather than at the field where finger loss, (or worse), may occur.

Have a read if you would and let me know what you think!
Have fun!
 
Last edited:

Piotrsko

Well-known member
#6
Might I suggest that @Hai-Lee goes back and reflects on experiences gained with test running fuel powered motors and apply that to the appropriate sections. Imho, electric planes are far more hazardous because they self start
 

Hai-Lee

Old and Bold RC PILOT
#7
Might I suggest that @Hai-Lee goes back and reflects on experiences gained with test running fuel powered motors and apply that to the appropriate sections. Imho, electric planes are far more hazardous because they self start
My first planes were gas powered over 40 years ago now. Mind you the radio systems back then were very basic and subject to many issues like interference and noise. Whilst I am aware of the variations in setup or differences required for fuel and electric powered models, I would like for people to be aware that there are differences. I am trying to make electric setups safer, or to borrow the name used to describe a radio feature, FAIL_SAFE.
I am working up to, developing a setup where the ELECTRIC model is unable to self start under any condition. As a result of my testing and research my current setup has passed static testing of hundreds of hours of operation without a single incidence of a random, (unrequited), motor start.
At the field and using what the research has indicated I have not had a motor start without the bound transmitter being powered up and the control settings requesting a motor start in the past three years. I wanted to have a truly fail-safe setup for an electric model and I believe that I have one.
My Training in electronics, (cert 4 in electronics and communications), computer networking, (including wireless),and as a workplace health and safety officer, was the driver into my research and exploring the operation and safe setup of my radio equipment.
It is surprising the number of older and experienced persons that developed their ideas on safe setup on older equipment and sadly as radio and electronics have developed in sophistication, reliability, and safety features, failed to upgrade their setups to better suit the new equipment features

I invite anyone to test what I have posted for themselves so that they can see the advances in setup that are available for those without a closed opinion on what is safe. Experience is a great asset unless it stops you from keeping current with modern technology and safety developments.

Here we have a number of older club members that follow old, (safe), habits and using their setups they have fly-aways,, accidental motor starts and Loss of signal issues, Mind you at the same time their minds are closed to even testing my setups or claims as to the setting their models for dead! My "Dead" setup is not for all equipment though, as it requires the use of modern radio equipment, but the model once set cannot start the motor without the model being being commanded to.

I invite people to evaluate my claims and to really know their radio system operation features, (especially the importance of properly fail-safe).

Have (safe) fun!
 

mayan

Well-known member
#8
Rather than start a new thread I will just add to this thread.

I am raising a document in relation to ESCs for new club members and newbies in general.

I invite comments as to the accuracy of the document or any other things that should be included, but just remember I am trying to dumb it down a LOT.

Here is the initial draft text.

Brushless ESCs
A layman’s introduction to safe handling.

Most electric motor driven models, including RC aircraft, now use an Electronic Speed Controller to supply and control the power supplied to the brushless electric motor. With the motor power available and the potential for damage or injury in handling such power, ESCs are designed to have an integral level of safety features. Many do not know or understand the safety features and this lead to the use of handling procedures that can introduce the possibility of damage or harm.

All electronics used in RC aircraft are continually evolving and becoming safer and more user friendly. Safety features are included in many of the individual items that go to make up a radio control system and the main two, (in the area of safety developments are the ESC and the Receiver).

A modern ESC is a microprocessor controlled device which not only generates the appropriate power supply waveforms to the motor but also allows for the programming of features as well as implementing or providing a number of safe operating functions. If you understand the growth of safety with ESCs then you are able to use the features to enhance your personal safety as well as preventing damage to your equipment.

When using the field programming feature the ESC does communicate a series of beeps through the connected motor by using the motor drive circuitry and the motor itself as a speaker. When attempting to program an ESC a motor should be connected. Attempting to program an ESC, without a connected motor, could cause the ESC to have features programmed in unintentionally.

Some of the features that you should be aware of, or familiar with, are;

  • Battery voltage measurement. This has 2 functions, firstly it signals audibly, using the motor as a speaker, as to the applied voltage or the battery cell count. Secondly it provides a low voltage detection and battery protection function by disconnecting the motor drive or reducing the power supplied to the motor when the battery voltage goes below the programmed safety voltage of the battery based upon the initial battery voltage measurement.
  • Valid throttle input. This function is an alarm that is normally only an advisory. When older analogue receivers are used this is an important safety warning as earlier receivers did not have a mute function on the receiver channel outputs and so noise, interference, or a rogue but on channel radio transmission, could cause false valid throttle inputs to the ESC occasionally. By warning of a lack of valid throttle input, when using an older analogue radio system, the fault should be remedied before a dangerous incident can occur. Where the ESC is not connected to a receiver, connected incorrectly, or a receiver is not powered up this alarm is considered as advisory only. When not receiving a valid throttle input signal the motor drive function is disabled.
  • Throttle calibration. As individual radio systems are not calibrated to the exact PWM channel specifications, a small variation is anticipated in what is the actual minimum and maximum throttle channel pulse widths. A calibration function is provided to set the ESC to respond to the full pulse wide input range used in the radio system into which the ESC has been installed. A poorly set throttle calibration can be very annoying but not a serious safety issue.
  • Program Mode. When an ESC is powered up and it receives a valid throttle input signal but the signal is not for minimum throttle then the ESC will not enable the motor drive circuitry but rather it will enter its programming mode. The program mode settings and requirements are not being discussed in this note. The response of the ESC to the throttle not being set to minimum is actually a safety feature in that the ESC will NEVER enable the motor drive circuitry until it has initially received a minimum throttle input. Accidently having a transmitter throttle setting at more than minimum when the battery is initially connected to the ESC CANNOT ever cause an accidental motor start.
  • Low voltage detection. The ESC is programmed to detect battery voltage and has a setting for the minimum battery voltage it will use before disconnecting the motor drive circuitry. The trigger point of this feature is dependent upon the initial battery voltage or cell count measurement when the battery was first connected to the ESC and the setting of the low voltage protection point that is set in the programming. This feature is to protect your model from a loss of control due to a flat battery and as an indication of the battery charge state. The settings, apart from the volts/cell of the cut-out point, can select the required action once the low voltage is detected. Actions available are either to disable the motor drive or to reduce the maximum power available to the motor.
  • Over temperature protection. As the motor drive circuitry can supply very large currents and therefore considerable electrical power the manufacturers include a temperature monitoring function for the motor drive stages. This monitoring does not monitor current draw. The BEC part of the ESC has its own separate over-temperature protection circuitry in the components used. The BEC over temperature response is to remove voltage from the receiver by load shedding or output voltage reduction. A BEC that overheats will cause a definite Loss of Control. In order to prevent the motor drive circuitry from becoming so hot that the radiant heat causes the BEC to become over heated a temperature monitor is included. The ESC responds to overheating of the motor drive circuitry is to reduce the power to the motor drive outputs effectively just reducing the throttle setting or in the extreme, (or as per program settings), the removal of motor drive completely.
  • Motor start torque. This feature comes as a surprise to many. Where a motor drive command is applied by the ESC the initial torque of the motors is quite low and the current quite high. The ESCs look for the back EMF generated by the motor rotation to determine rotational speed. (This is a crude and inaccurate measurement). If a motor is unable to rotate freely the motor will tend to be either very slow in rotation or even stalled. Rather than burn out the motor drive circuitry with huge currents the ESC will cycle through a number of attempts to start the motor. After a number of attempts to get the motor to rotate, the ESC will determine that the motor has a fault and remove the drive to the motor. It will remain in this condition until the throttle setting is returned to minimum whereupon the motor drive circuitry will be re-enabled.
There are a small number of Brushless ESCs available or still in use that have an on/off switch wired to them. These ESCs can be considered as older or legacy designs and the function of the switch is to disable the BEC output voltage regulator as well as to cause the microprocessor to hold the motor drive circuitry in an OFF state. Whilst there is a minor power saving in the OFF position the main reason for its inclusion is that the older analogue receivers could provide random throttle inputs due to noise and interference. By removing the BEC output the receiver is turned off and so no false throttle signals can be generated.

A summary of safe ESC operation.

A modern brushless ESC cannot cause a motor start unless there is a valid throttle input signal AND that the throttle signal had initially been set at minimum throttle before being advanced to a non-minimum throttle setting. The following conditions are safe with a modern ESC by design.

  • The ESC connected to the motor and battery but not the receiver. (No valid throttle input signal).
  • The model is using a modern Spread Spectrum receiver and the battery is connected to the ESC when the transmitter is not switched on. (No valid throttle input signal).
  • The model is using a modern Spread Spectrum receiver and the battery is connected to the ESC when the transmitter is turned off. (Loss of valid throttle input signal, subject to the receiver’s Fail-safe settings).
  • Low voltage cut-out will protect the plane from crashing due to a loss of control as long as you land immediately the protection measure is enacted.
  • Over temperature protection to protect your model from a loss of control due to the potential loss of the receiver voltage loss which could occur due to BEC self-protection. You need to revise your installation or setup.
Specific dangerous situations

  • Handling a model that is powered up and the transmitter signal, a valid throttle setting, is present as this means that the ESC remains armed and the motor drive circuitry remains active.
  • The use of an analogue radio system with its interference and rogue transmitter susceptibilities. A specific type of ESC is best suited to such installations and these are recognised by their included on/off switch.
  • The use of ANY radio system that is susceptible to interference unless the ESC has its own on/off switch.
  • Improperly set Fail-Safe settings.
  • The use of a radio system where the manufacturer has reversed the minimum and maximum PWM pulse widths in their system. This is a sad feature of our hobby but some manufacturers insist on sticking to their own proprietary radio, and PWM specifications. This can be a serious issue for the inexperienced.
  • Inadvertently reversing the throttle channel during a model setup where the transmitter and the model are both powered up. When reversed the channel can go from what the ESC sees as a minimum throttle to Maximum throttle. Kill switch function, and holding the throttle off manually are all reversed and so are of zero value in the case of such an occurrence.
WARNING

Know your radio, its features, and its failings.

Do not rely on transmitter functions to protect you. A transmitter can fail, have a flat battery, be bumped or be dropped. Relying on a safety feature than can be so easily removed is a recipe for disaster. Placing your transmitter down on the ground can make is susceptible to moisture ingress and thereby possibly a serious fault or general failure.

Safety features that can control the ESC operation must be set correctly, especially the Fail-Safe settings or at least be aware of the default fail-safe programming of your system and modify your setup handling procedures accordingly.

When doing any work on your model, ensure that the model is tethered, (tied down or otherwise secured against unexpected movement), or remove the propeller. In cases where the propeller is unable to be removed and that the model has no restraint available you can disconnect one of the motor to ESC connections thereby removing motor drive but allowing the ESC signalling to still function. If the ESC is inaccessible and the propeller cannot be removed you can secure the propeller itself. The securing of the propeller against movement is the solution of last resort.

Do not overload the BEC output on the ESC or the BEC will overheat or detect an over current condition and shut down. This shutting down will definitely cause a loss of the receiver function and of any control. Fail-safe settings will not be activated as the Receiver has been shutdown. Normally a crash will ensue.

Do not fit a higher voltage battery than the ESC is rated for. The higher voltage itself can cause the ESC to fail in itself. Where the ESC does not fail the power available to the motor can be so high that the current levels exceed the motor drive circuitry’s abilities and a output failure can occur, (normally the output goes short circuit), and a fire can develop as well as the burning out of the motor itself. The ESC output can actually overheat very rapidly, (which causes the BEC to overheat and shutdown), before the output fails and the worse case result can be an out of control model in flames seeking an impact point or target.

Ensure that your ESC has good ventilation in all installations.

When flying a number of different models attempt to make the setups the same. This avoids handling errors due to confusion that could possibly lead to personal injury or model damage.

When you have finished your model’s setup test it in every manner that you can think of prior to removing the tether. If you have made a mistake in the setup it is better to find out in the workshop rather than at the field where finger loss, (or worse), may occur.

Have a read if you would and let me know what you think!
Have fun!
Very nice and detailed @Hai-Lee I found the last part probably the most understandable because the start is very technical. Great job buddy.
 

Hai-Lee

Old and Bold RC PILOT
#9
I just discovered that the above post #4 is actually described in very scant detail on an official Spektrum website as the features of their SmartSafe on their newer products. I have been battling to have something understood that Spektrum has adopted as a safety feature.

That should dampen some of the detractors!

Still laughing here!

Have fun!